De Criminali Proportione: On Proportionality Standing Between National Criminal Laws and the E.U. Fundamental Freedoms

Alessandro Rosanò

Abstract


Over time, the European Court of Justice has had to clarify whether and under what circumstances national laws may put one of the four fundamental freedoms of the internal  market  aside  in  cases  concerning  clashes  between  national  regulations  and said freedoms. The answers provided by the E.C.J. have always focused on the centrality of  the  principle  of  proportionality,  expressing  the  idea  that  a  balance  between conflicting interests and means to protect those interests must be reached. An a priori protection of the fundamental freedoms has been refused  in favor of a more concrete kind of approach. This article deals with this topic, assessing the relationship between proportionality and free movement of persons, goods, and services. Also, it is checked whether, thanks to the principle of proportionality, the E.C.J. may achieve the role of a European  Constitutional  Court  that  can  protect  the  E.U.  interests  without  putting national interests aside.


Keywords


Principle of Proportionality; European Court of Justice; Free Movement of Persons; Free Movements of Goods; Free Movement of Services

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DOI: 10.6092/issn.2531-6133/7180

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